Abstract: As background for this special issue on strandings and mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS), this paper presents a brief history of active sonar, tracing the development of MFAS from its origins in the early 20th century through the development of current tactical MFAS.

Key Words: mid-frequency active sonar, MFAS, anti-submarine warfare, ASW, whales

Document Type: Article

DOI: 10.1578/AM.35.4.2009.426

Page Numbers: 426-434

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